Historically, talking about Castelo Rodrigo implies remounting many centuries in history. From prehistory to the twenty-first century, many are the testimonies that exist, allowing us to travel through time to discover the historical roots of an entire region.
Occupied successively by the Túrdulos, Romans and Moors, the present municipality of Figueira de Castelo Rodrigo was integrated into the Kingdom of Leon in the XI century, definitively integrating the Portuguese territory in 1297. Until century XIX was called only Castle Rodrigo, in homage to the Warden D. Rodrigo, who defended the fortress in 1296. The parish of Figueira belonged then to the municipality of Castelo Rodrigo. With the elevation of Figueira to the category of Vila, the seat of the county was transferred there and passed to the current denomination.
From the primitive occupation of this territory little is known, but there are vestiges that point to very remote times, among which the rock art engraving of Vale de Afonsinho, which represents a zoomorphic motif of the Magdalense style, stands out.
The Túrdulos - people who occupied Bética - must have been the first organized community to inhabit the region. Of the Roman occupation, which was quite intense, there are vestiges of the probable existence of at least nine "villas", two bridges, Vermiosa and Escalhão and remnants of Roman sidewalks. The "Tower of the Eagles", whose construction is located in the second century AD and would have been a Roman temple, later adapted the military watchtower.
In Escalhão, on the left bank of the river Águeda, the old Roman city of Caliábria would have been located, of which there are many vestiges. The Arabs bequeathed us the traditional farming houses, the castle cistern and other remains.
Once reconquered definitively by the kings of Leo in century XI, Afonso IX of Leon granted to him foral and raised the town to the category of county. With the signing of the Treaty of Alcanizes, the 12 of September of 1297, Castle Rodrigo was integrated in Portugal. Then, the Portuguese king D. Dinis, confirmed the County Council, ordered to rebuild Castelo Rodrigo and reinforce its walls. Then, in 1373, D. Fernando granted him a Fair Charter.
During the wars of Independence, it was again very damaged even reaching a state of great depopulation.
D. Manuel I, ordered to rebuild the castle and in 1508 attributed to him new foral raising it to the seat of the county.
During the seventeenth century and due to the characteristics of the population, narrow, steep and sinuous streets and houses scattered along the walls of the old medieval fortress, Castelo Rodrigo began to lose its importance, which would become fatal, since the county seat would pass to the village of Figueira, which developed more and more in the lower plain.
By this time was built the Parish Church of Figueira, an alternate vigararia of the Santa Fé and the Bishop of Lamego. The 25 of June of 1836, Figueira received its first charter that elevated it to the category of town and seat of the county in substitution of the one of Castelo Rodrigo and happening to be called Figueira de Castelo Rodrigo.